Dark matter’s interaction with visible matter may have opened portal to a new kind of physics.

A team of research from Italy’s northeastern university SISSA may have found a new perception which may shed some legitimate insight into the long-lost conception of Dark Matter. The statistical studies have shown results which interconnect Dark matter with ordinary matter. The results are certainly not within the limits of the standard models of physics. The results are quite obvious but cannot be understood in a trivial way within the existing framework of the standard model. The statistical analysis of mini-spiral galaxies has shown results which may lead to a completely new kind of physics, where the phenomenon such as Dark Matter and Dark energy can be explained.

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Well, to start with what are mini-spiral galaxies, let me clarify that they are not very much different from ours and in fact resembles our galaxies, only 10 times smaller. Dark Matter has been a mystery for a long time even to some of the most prominent astrophysicists and cosmologists. Dark matter is so mysterious lies in the fact that it doesn’t emit electromagnetic radiation or even interact with it. Even using some of the most sophisticated equipment; it was only detected through its gravitational waves. Most dark matter, according to the most reliable postulates, would be non-baryonic or WIMP. It would not interact with ordinary matter except through gravitational force. But these studies have completely disagreed with this notion.

In these groundbreaking statistical study, for the first time, these elements were been studied statistically. A method was loomed which expunged the “individual” changeability of each object, thus enlightening the general characteristics of the class. A total of 36 galaxies studied, which was sufficient enough for a statistical study. By doing this an association between the structure of ordinary, or luminous matter like stars, dust, and gas, with the dark matter were found. The objects which were observed gave an outcome that the structure of the dark matter mimics the visible matter in its own way. Professor Paulo Salucci, the head of the research team explained, “If, for a given mass, the luminous matter in a galaxy is closely compacted, so it is the dark matter. Similarly, if the former is more widespread than in other galaxies, so is the latter.

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How this discovery is different when compare with the standard model of physics? Standard Model of physics deals with some of the most fundamental concepts of physics. It is one of the most generally accepted theories among the renowned physicists. It explains essential forces (particles and matters), however, it itself has some noteworthy qualms, as it does not include the gravitational force. Phenomenon such as dark matter and dark energy makes it clear to the scientists that there is yet another spot left in physics to be explored and apprehend.

From the aforementioned discussion, we can be sure that even in the largest spiral galaxies there are effects similar to the ones we observed and realize every day in our life. But they are signals that we can only explain using the outline of the Standard Model through astrophysical processes within galaxies. With mini-spirals, however, there is no simple explanation. These 36 items are the tip of the iceberg of a phenomenon that we will probably find everywhere and that will help us discover what we cannot yet see. “From our observations, the phenomenon, and thus the necessity, is incredibly obvious. At the same time, this can be a starting point for exploring this new kind of physics,” continues Salucci.

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A theoretical explanation on the existence of Dark Matter

Protons, electrons, and neutrons bundled together in an atom are the particles what make most of the visible universe, including the earth, the sun and the distant stars of the galaxies. When we look up the sky, we may don that this stunning enormity mostly consists of the aforesaid particles right? Antagonistically one of the most fundamental discoveries in the 20th century was just opposite and stated that these universally accepted particles constitute less than 5% of the Universe. Yes 5%, so what about the rest 95% then? The rest of the universe is believed to be made up of an enigmatic unnoticeable material known as the dark matter along with a repelling gravitational force known as dark energy.

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What is Dark Matter is a fascinating question that gives goosebumps even to some of the finest minds in the field of astrophysics and cosmology. Dark Matter does not interact with baryonic matters and is invisible to light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, making it impossible to detect even with the most enhanced and sophisticated instruments. So, if we cannot see it and cannot detect it, how can we be so sure of its existence? The answer lies in the gravitational effects these dark matters have on the center of the galaxies as well as the galaxy clusters. 

Standard physics states that stars on the edges of a spinning galaxy should move with a slower acceleration compare to the stars orbiting near the boundary conditions of the galactic center, where the galaxy’s visible matters are intensely concentrated. But when theoretical observations were made, it was perceived that the speed of the stars were almost same throughout the stretchable distance of the galactic disc. These observations proved the theoretical conventions that an invisible force is somehow inoculating an invisible gravitational force on the stars orbiting around the edges of a spinning galaxy thus making them accelerate much faster.

There is numerous postulate made on the dark matter and yet a few of them can explain that what it might be? One of the most fundamentally accepted postulate is that Dark matters consists of exotic particles which don’t interact with the photons and electrons but somehow exerts a gravitational pull. Other hypothesis stresses on the modified theory of gravity, which states the existence of manifold forms of gravity, and the far-reaching gravity governing galaxies which are quite different from the gravity to which we are familiar.

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The discovery of dark matter was a complete shock to the scientists. Previously they anticipated that the attractive forces of gravity will slow down the expansion of the universe w.r.t time. But little to their expectations, the simulation results send a shock of paranoia among the scientific society, when the results showed that the expansion is actually increasing instead of slowing down. It was almost as throwing a ball up the air hoping it to fall down, but only to see it going up and up. 

Physicists now believe that the expansion of the universe is due to the repulsive force engendered by the quantum fluctuations in the halo spaces of the galaxies. To be added, the force gets stronger as the universe expands and thus known as the dark force energy. Unlike dark matter, there is no conceivable explanation for dark energy and is thought to be the fifth fundamental force called quintessence, which fills the universe like a fluid. 

Dark energy is steady with the cosmological constant, a mathematical perpetual used by Albert Einstein in his equation of general theory of relativity to fit it in the impression of a stagnant universe. According to the theory, he suggested that this ‘constant’ is a reclusive force which thwarts the gravity thus preventing the galaxies from disintegrating within itself.

Now that we have discovered the universe is expanding with a dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant, we can define the true image of the stretchable space-time into vast cosmos. But even with all this explanation still, leaves the best minds wondering that why and how this strange force arrived in the first place.